read --- read() attempts to read up to count bytes from file descriptor fd into the buffer starting at buf.
If count is zero, read() returns zero and has no other results. If count is greater than SSIZE_MAX, the result is unspecified.
write --- write() writes up to count bytes from the buffer pointed buf to the file referred to by the file descriptor fd.
The number of bytes written may be less than count if, for example, there is insufficient space on the underlying phys- ical medium, or the RLIMIT_FSIZE resource limit is encountered (see setrlimit(2)), or the call was interrupted by a signal handler after having written less than count bytes. (See also pipe(7).)
For a seekable file (i.e., one to which lseek(2) may be applied, for example, a regular file) writing takes place at the current file offset, and the file offset is incremented by the number of bytes actually written. If the file was open(2)ed with O_APPEND, the file offset is first set to the end of the file before writing. The adjustment of the file offset and the write operation are performed as an atomic step.
POSIX requires that a read(2) which can be proved to occur after a write() has returned returns the new data. Note that not all file systems are POSIX conforming.
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read --- On success, the number of bytes read is returned (zero indicates end of file), and the file position is advanced by this number. It is not an error if this number is smaller than the number of bytes requested; this may happen for example because fewer bytes are actually available right now (maybe because we were close to end-of-file, or because we are reading from a pipe, or from a terminal), or because read() was interrupted by a signal. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately. In this case it is left unspecified whether the file position (if any) changes.
write --- On success, the number of bytes written is returned (zero indicates nothing was written). On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
If count is zero and fd refers to a regular file, then write() may return a failure status if one of the errors below is detected. If no errors are detected, 0 will be returned without causing any other effect. If count is zero and fd refers to a file other than a regular file, the results are not specified.